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The Spacetime Expansion Hypothesis

Loki Gebo Tiwaz (c) 2 December 2012 (first edited draft)


When i was a child, I had a recurring dream in which there was a strong motif of being amongst a mountain of dead machines, and this was somehow dangerous, I can't remember why, and about me attempting to piece things back together, a particularly memorable image was me as a young child, maybe 4 years old, and I am putting together this strange black object which somewhat resembles a spherical version of the borg cube, but it is magickal, levitating, and when I am about to put the last piece in, it shatters and a bright flash. Then I am adrift in a kind of corridor of mangroves, without a pole to steer and this intense fear that there is something, crocodiles or something, that could hurt me, but i am unable to control where I am going.

In december 1999 I was still, at that point, reading an alternative magazine called 'nexus' in which they frequently published ideas and inventions and theories by non-mainstream theorists and inventors, and i think, somehow, I'm not sure exactly what triggered it, but it was a synthesis of Keely, Velikhovsky, Tesla and Townsend Brown, combined with an idea from Peter Carroll. It occurred to me that possibly gravity could in fact be caused by expansion when considered from a radically different standpoint. This theory largely appeared on account of me trying to figure out how high voltages though capacitors were reported by Townsend-Brown to cause a seeming alteration in gravitational effect.

In 2002, while under the influence of methamphetamine, I worked further on the ideas and incorporated strings and a mechanism to explain how the expansion effect worked, and I also started to synthesise ideas about how atoms attract or repel each other, and what light and other radiative energies are, and I started to think about how to apply these ideas to experimental apparatus to demonstrate the principles.

As I write this, again, two years later, on my own, poorly made (and yield) meth again, and I am determined to pull all of my ideas together in a concise and terse format in order that i can perhaps start to move onto something practical. There is no structuring to this document other than this introduction because the ideas are terribly interconnected and each depends on the other. I may get an editor to attempt to structure it, but in my mind it could only be done with hypertext. I have written sections, however these ideas are prgressive and inter-related, so it is entirely arbitrary. Well, as it turns out, after an hour's nap I awoke, exhausted but determined to make good on my promises to myself, and so I have edited and corrected it myself.

I am aware that in some parts of this text I contradict myself, please read this document as stream of consciousness, I am describing the process of the intuiting and synthesising the ideas. In future a more comprehensive document shall be written, incorporating mathematical formulae, diagrams and so forth, and it will be more structured. This document intends to put forward the primary concepts of this hypothesis, in a somewhat hodge-podge manner, I may contradict myself at times but as the document proceeds, the last words more clearly express than the initial ones, and sometimes I have radically revised my idea since the described initial conception.

The complex of ideas contained herein expose the essence of my hypothesis, most of the ideas now are much more concrete than before as while writing this document I was able to more clearly envision the mechanisms and I ironed out faults and inconsistencies and thus the ideas presented here should represent the totality of the system, albeit in a vague fashion at times. The use of words and no diagrams made descriptions clumsy at times. This will be fixed when I write a proper treatise. In some sense this document logs a process of synthetic imagination and visualisation. It does not go further than this, the idea is to put it all together to show the unity of the model with observed reality.

Gravity and The Red Shift

Gravity is a force which attracts objects together, yet at the same time, it appears that the universe is expanding. The Big Bang theory and its variants all depend upon the ignorance of the mechanism of gravity (considering only its effect, and not the cause) and the concept of heat death, of the ultimate entropy of the universe. However, I don't like the idea of heat death, and from my reading of chaos theory, I believe that there is a balanced counter-force of negentropy in the universe. Gravity is not a radiation, as it has been shown to act instantly at great distances. It is posited by einstein that gravity is caused by distortion in spacetime. Space 'curves' because of matter, according to einstein, supposedly in some higher dimension perhaps?

My idea combines the use of ideas from Peter Carroll regarding 'finite and unbounded fields' which is best modelled by explaining that a sphere, such as this planet, is a 2 dimensional surface, of finite size, but without any boundary - you can travel around it endlessly, similar to those old computer games where you walk off the edge of the screen and come back around on the other side again; Townsend-Brown's discovery that high voltage through capacitors causes a gravitational thrust effect, which i found was most elaborated by an experiment by an argentinian inventor called Sullos, and by Immanuel Velikhovsky's idea that somehow stars are pushing apart from each other (galaxies) and that this also somehow creates matter.

The primary idea that started this all off was that space is in fact composed of squillions of these primary particles, whose structures and interactions creates all of manifest physical reality. This is somewhat akin tho the division of cells in organisms. The expansion of space caused by this division permits the primary force of nature, gravity, to violate the third law of thermodynamics. Rather than say it is expanding, rather it is dividing. Matter, being made up of these particles which have acquired self-sustaining patterns, these structures do not change scale relative to each other. They are made of triplets of the particles whose division is occurring about a mutual axis, with some degree of skew from the centre that creates their rotational velocity, which is a constant. Sort of like a pinwheel.

The gravity effect is caused by this expansion, combined with the Finite but Unbounded idea of Peter Carroll's which asserts that the 4 dimensional spacetime, like the 2 dimensional surface of a sphere, is warped through higher dimensions to create a field in which one can endlessly travel in one direction, and come back to the same place from the opposite direction in which one left. The expansion creates a pressure on atomic matter, whose self-sustaining spins cause them to be pushed by this expansion from every angle. I used to attempt to model this as a 1 dimensional line wrapped into 1.5 dimensions, partial dimensions in the sense of chaos theory which asserts that all shapes within a higher dimensional space can have a degree of filling it, which determines the fraction one denominates.

The one dimensional model fails for explaining how pressure can cause this effect because there is nowhere for the spacetime particles to flow around, however it does model the proportionality of the forces involved. Two objects, considered on this imaginary 1d finite unbounded universe, that are close to each other, have say, 20 units between them on the short side, and 100 on the long side. When these units divide, as I have posited they do, the 20 units becomes 40, and the 100 becomes 200. Consider both sides of this equation. There is a net force of 20 in the short side and 100 in the long side. The objects themselves are made of the dividing particles so they shrink when the whole scheme is considered.

It is more useful, at this point to move up another dimension to 2 dimensions, and consider the same phenomenon on a finite unbounded space in which the particles can flow around, if they cannot push. Thus the forces, as above, are proportional to the size and density (density is a factor of harmonic dissonance with the primary particle's harmonics, creating greater pressure), greater in the long side than the short side. As the spacetime particles expand they push around  the two objects, and meet at the perpendicular centre of the objects where they move away. The differences in pressure longside and shortside result in a net movement of the two objects together, at a rate which is a function of their relative densities, and the distance between them at the moment they are being considered. In effect, they come together because they are pushed together.

I have pondered endlessly about what is the rate of this expansion effect, how fast are they doing it, and I have not yet found a substantial reason. However I do assert that every spacetime particle is identical, and thus must be undergoing the process in synchrony. It must be quite rapid considering the measured vibrational rates of numerous particles and so forth. This division time i call the clocktick of the universe. All events that are observed are a fractional moment of this tick, during the division is the dark time which quantum physicists posit makes up the greater part of their mechanism.

At the equal opposite axis, objects are in fact not moving relative to their location on opposite sides, however, they are. The apparent expansion we observe between galaxies is in fact the increase in space. Why are they moving away? Surely the long side between the objects is greater? Well, the expansion we see is the significator of the fact that our universe is indeed young. Unlike big bang theory, my theory states that the universe started as one spacetime particle which divided and divided, each time the component particles become half the circumference as they were previously. The point at which we observe the red-shift is not really that far away, so perhaps, in fact, we are actually looking at the same object, galaxy, at a different time, as to be expanding, in this model, they must be, also, moving towards us from the other side.

So, why is the greater distance expanding away, and the lesser ones shrinking, and how does this cause the apparent expansion. The objects, relative to their size related to each other, and proportional to the distance, do not appear to move together. Space grows between them because these objects dotted around the sphere are equally distant from each other, roughly speaking. Thus the expansion force on each side is equal, and the space grows. The forces are pushing the galaxies in both directions roughly equally, thus they do not move relative to their angular position on the sphere. The expansion force creates pressure roughly equally between equal spaced objects, thus there is no differential causing a net attraction.

Henceforth i will call this curvature thing a 'hypersphere', as it is the next dimension up , a finite unbounded 3 dimensional space, wrapped through higher dimensions. I disagree with the idea of labelling time as a dimension, because time is caused by the division effect which regulates all forces, which i assert all begin as this expansion force.

Thus I have successfully (at last) explained how gravity and red-shift are caused by the same mechanism, rather than two as is required in the big bang model. I previously, incorrectly, assumed that expansion was caused at the opposite points which made me think that the universe could then only be as big as the cell space which one could visualise bounding galaxies. Instead I now realise that the simple shrinking, combined with equalised gravity force, explains the expansion. I realised that if we could see the oposite side of the hypersphere that once an object stops going away from us in one direction, we see it appear coming towards us from the opposite. This is clearly clumsy. It happened because of the way that i visualised the objects, forgetting to make them shrink at the same rate as the space expands.

Electricity, Magnetism and Atomic Physics

Nikola Tesla created a design for a passive valve which used fluid dynamics to create the inhibiton of flow in one direction while relatively unimpeded flow occurs in the other. It basically constists of a central tube, with heart-shaped side-paths which feed back, backwards, so that when fluid flows in one direction, there is slight eddies asd it flows past these revese opposed side paths, but when it flows in the other direction, more of the fluid flows through the side paths than the centre, and these side paths are pointed so that as fluid tries to move forward through the centre, two flows are opposing it. Each unit of the passive valve produces a certain amount of resistance, but by themselves not very much, but when they are combined they compound each others effect. Thus usually there would be perhaps 5-10 units in such a valve, depending on the relationship between the pressure one anticipates being required to resist backward flow.

In my model, gravity is posited as the primary motivating force behind all phenomena, or to be more precise, the cause of gravity, the division of spacetime, is at the root of magnetism and electricity. The particular resonance between the Iron atom's spin rate, and the division rate of spacetime, creates a similar effect to the passive valve i have described above. As is observed by quantum physicists and experiments back this up, the nucleus of an atom is very small and there is a lot of space between them. In the case of iron, because of its particular harmonic ratio to the spacetime particle, it can maintain a laminar arrangement of its atoms almost indefinitely. The harmony between the iron atoms and spacetime means that, using an already polarised iron object, one can cause another one to align similarly. This creates two flows, as the atoms spins, resembling a set of gears, spin in opposite pairs, alternately clockwise and anticlockwise. The effect of this is that as the expansion force permeates out of the structure of a block of iron, if it is aligned thus, it creates linear flux lines which consist of laminar threads going in opposite directions. These flux lines run as loops, because of the effect of gravity pressing in from all directions causes them to flare at the poles and join up whith their beginnings.

Thus I can then explain magnetism as the alignment of iron atoms causing a particular shaped flow pattern which i previously called 'polarised', but i will now call it laminar/oppositional, because it consists of flows opposing each other at the distance apart that the atoms of the iron object are, with lines of force in a kind of chess-board pattern with opposing vectors interspersed with each other.

From here i can elaborate as to how this works with other metals. Unlike iron, other metals are at a more disharmonious ratio to the spacetime clocktick, and thus they cannot maintain this laminar flux position for very long without repelling each other. Repulsion is caused by disharmony, which in my model is where the spiraling paths of the expelled spacetime particles which split off from the atom causing its motility, tend to colide with each other. At all times during the development of this physics model I have constantly found myself observing polarities, and in atoms it is no different. When the spin rates of two atoms are in harmony, this means their spiraling expelled particles are able to find a way to push where the othe particle is passive. Similar to gears really.

Thus, the particular spiral path and rate of spin of each different atomic element determines its interactions with others, and is based upon a primary frequency, which is the division clocktick of the spacetime particle. The clocktick is like the carrier wave in radio frequency signal modulation, it is the primary driver. The spins of the atoms  interact with this primary cycle, and combined with that, with each other. These three numbers determine the properties of a material. Although any given atom has the same spin as any other atom of the same element, the way in which they associate whith themselves depends on the relationship to the clocktick. Thus, metals are more resonant with the clocktick, and nonmetals are less resonant.

Metals thus are more prone to forming high density clumps of uniform material, and as you move across the periodic table they become progressively less able to associate with themselves, exemplified by the two-element combinations of hydrogen, oxygen, halides etc. Noble gases are in fact, in the sense of harmony with the primary clocktick, ignoble, as they disagree with it, and thus natually cannot bind with each other as the atoms spin rate must be in harmony with the expanding space around them for the attractive force to match the expansive force. The expansion force applies  pressure in every direction, and thus atoms can associate intimately only if their spiraling particle ejection pathways agree both with each other and with the primary cycle.

Metals are therefore in harmony whith the primary clocktick, and thus they tend to associate with each other. Hence different elements can be alloyed, altering the material. Unlike iron, however, the maintenance of the oppositional/laminar flow creates disharmony, and thus repulsion, between the metal particles. This is what is called 'resistance' in electric conductors. Resistance is related to the degree of disharmony between the metal and the clocktick. Looking at the periodic table I can see that it has been arranged according to known reaction relationships, but this concept of harmonics between atoms and space itself being the cause of their reactions means that the periodic table, although it can help with developing the number ratios to a certain extent, it is not a map of this harmony/disharmony.

The induction of the laminar/oppositional force into other metals, such as copper, gold or aluminium, for example, causes temporary alignments between the particles in the same way as occurrs with iron, picture opposite directional paths at iron's particular bonding distance (this bonding distance thing is also related to harmonics with the primary cloctick) and this then induces the opposite/laminar pattern in the metal, which, same as the case with the magnet, follows a loop, hence the reason why there is positive and negative poles in circuits.

When i first conceived this idea I hadn't really properly visualised the scale at which this operates, but i now see that clearly, between atomic nucleii in bound atoms, there is a considerable amount of distance, compared with the size of the primary particle. When i pictured the laminar/oppositional flow i saw it as opposite spinning sets of spacetime particles forming chains, but this is much too fine scale compared with how it operates in my revised model. It is on account of harmony between iron and the spacetime particle that the laminar flows occur. If it were slighly or greatly out of harmony, the spacetime particles would not be able to move in this way, as these flows must run past each other without resistance (up to the range of the magnet).

In other metals these alignments travel in the circles at a rate which is determined by the resistance to this laminar/oppositional pattern in the metal itself, which is a degree of disharmony with the magnetic laminar/oppositional flux. As the flux lines pass through the metal in a generator, it induces pulses of alignment which travel, through the loop so long as there is a loop, ending at the power source which is actually a break in the circuit, at which point the alignment perfectly opposes the other (this is my definition of an electricity generator, battery or rotary/magnetic/coil induction).

The speed of electrical alignment paths is directly related to the cloctick. Likewise the speed of light. In fact, it is the clocktick. However, it is incorrect that lightspeed cannot be exceeded. Any speed or acceleration measurement is in fact relative. Thus if two objects fly apart at half lightspeed, relative to each other, they are travelling at lightspeed relative to each other, accelerate them and they quickly exceed it relatively. The time lag in lower forms of vibration such as sound and electricity is related to a mechanical transformation that occurs in the medium. In electromagnetic phenomena, this is related to the harmonic between the clocktick and the rate at which the atoms flip from one side to the other. As the atom's axis opposes, a certain amount of ticks must elapse as the repulsion force requires time to manifest.

The intuition I had when i first conceived of this model of electromagnetism, was that if high voltage flowing from a conductor through capacitative material caused a change in gravitational flux, then it must be somehow channeling spacetime in the manner of a valve. If one considers the alignment model of electrical energy, then resistance is related to the degree to which a material opposes this oppositional/laminar flow pattern, amperage measures the cross-section of how many laminar/opositional flow paths are open at one time, and voltage represents the linear distance to which the alignments occur at once.

Nonmetals, which is what most capacitors are made of, do not at all adjust themselves to this alignment. In actual fact there is not really any such thing as DC electricity, this is merely laminar flow that has peaks and troughs at the exact distance of the conductor's atoms, thus allowing a continuous flow. This is generated by the action, in general, of a battery, or the use of semiconductors, which are electric valves, only allowing a pulse in one direction, in a special arangement that permits the single atom pulse, of course only a battery produces a perfect one, inverters do produce slight variations in the laminar/oppositional flow cycling as positive and less positive, rather than negative.

Thus, the use of high voltage through capacitors, causing gravity effects, suggests that when the laminar/oppositional flow path hits the capacitor its linearity is diffused, but the higher the voltage, the greater the distance to which this laminar flow acts as a pump, as the capacitative materials absorb the backflow but not the forward flow (the laminar flows are like a chessboard in cross-section, alternately forwards and backwards).

I would suggest that, while this may present a method of producing gravitational propulsion, certainly, on the low voltage scale it would appear as ionic propulsion, which is the criticism laid on Townsend-Brown and Naudin's devices. I would think it would take a voltage of extrarodinary extent to produce a usable force which reaches out far enough to work in vacuum. This was the claim maid by Sullos, whose villard cascade and radiative (capacior) plate is entirely immersed in castor oil.

Light and Radiant Forms of Energy

I group these together because they all act on the same principle, differing only in the mediation of the medium of the radiant force, for example, sound travels at the speed of the medium it is travelling through because of the amount of clockticks required to transmit the force.

All forms of electromagnetic radiation transmit via the induction of spinning triplets with a non-neutral common axis, something like the apex of a tetrahedron. Thus each triplet has a net forward velocity which is directly related to the clocktick rate. Thinking about what angle this must be, one must consider the stable point at which the unity of the triplet is maintained while still having a forward velocity. It is probably 60 degrees, but I am just guessing.

Excited atoms emit electromagnetic particles via the polarisation causing a cyclic backwards-forwards motion which is in harmony with the clockick, which causes the induction of that exact angle in a triplet directly in contact with the atomic triplet. In the next section i describe how rotational velocity and so forth are transfered, via the lateral alignment of the threads composing the spacetime particle, and it is via this that the 'photon' or 'emf radiation' are transmitted.

The radiative triplets form in all forms of radiative energy, the difference being that the triplets formed have different effects depending on the medium. Electromagnetic radiation occurs at the speed of light because of the speed of the oscillation involved. Sound is slighly different as the triplets formed transfer their force to the atoms, and their particular rotational cycle imparts energy to the adjacent atom. Sound does not travel though vacuum because the sound triplets particular rotational velocities are disharmonious with the random chaotic spacetime particle regions which exist outside of gas, liquid or solids. Neutrinos are actually the random formation of an unstable triplet, quantum physics posited this and it has been verified that indeed vacuum does randomly form particles but they are usually not perfectly aligned and quickly dissociate.

Lightspeed can in fact be exceeded, as i described earlier, indeed it is violated in any light emitter that is omnidirectional, one photon relative to another. The omnidirectional gravity flux field I describe in the transport section would permit any speed to be produced, the only limitation is the power of the gravitational flux valve, which is related to its length and cross-section area, and the mass of the object being propelled.

Another aspect of radiative force that should be considered is a device which modulates gravity flux back and forth directly, rather than being mediated through electromagnetic triplet generation. Such a device could transmit data instantaneously, and this may be the means by which quantum nonlocality operates. Two particles produced at the same time would, at least until something, perhaps a change in temperature or other such thing, interfered, would resonate with each other exactly, and thus any change to one would cause a fluctuation in gravity flux which would cause the other to change in sympathy just as two identically tensioned strings or pieces of metal will both ring the same way when one is struck.

This sympathetic vibration, in sound or radio waves is the means by which hearing and radio both work. Interference (disharmony) with the medium is the reason why sound and radio have limited ranges, the energy is simply dispersed at a specific rate by the medium.

If a means to modulate a gravity valve's output were somehow found, it should be possible to create quantum non-local style communications systems which instantly transfer information at any distance. There is no time of travel because, like newton's balls, the real effect is basically like pulling a long rigid pole backwards and forwards, similar to a tin can telephone. The movement is connected from end to end and occurs in a single clocktick.

Heat energy too, acts via radiative triplets. Heat is disharmonious with all atomic matter. It repels all matter. When a heat triplet hits an atom it attempts to disrupt it, which causes it to move. This movement induces the generation of another triplet (the initial one disipates when it transfers its energy) which then also transfers (just like sound or radio etc).


Its a bit late in the essay to talk about this, kinda, as i needed to allude to it in the previous section about radiative energy.

The key to the mechanism of the division of the primary particle is in the way that the strings interact with themselves. The primary particle is a ring, and the strings have certain rules which determine their behavior. When strings come into contact while in parallel alignment, they transfer force, similar to the teeth of gears. The degree of transfer is determined by this alignment, and it is this which allows induction of forces to occur.

I could not work out how many strings there is in a single spacetime particle, I think perhaps to call them strings is a bit of a misnomer. Keely posited that the particles were in fact distortions in a smooth (infinitely divisible) field. He said there was 3 components to them, and these distortions made them incompressible. I am inclined to say that he was right about the distortion part, but the spins, he did not grasp.

The spacetime particles, when they divide, there is an opposite spin in the top half to the bottom half. As the spacetime particle thusly twists, the equator is contorted. For this reason I go with the strings model, as the strings are inelastic, and thus the twisting force causes them to collapse inwards at the centre, which produces the division. I guess it is irrelevant whether it is one string loop or two or more, from the very first moment the universe started, all of the strings spin in synchrony. Thus in any given clocktick, which is what i am calling the period of division, every string is already in identical aspect. So for this reason it probably is the case one can consider the distortions model, but inelastic strings give a reason for the division. So either way you describe it, it doesn't matter, so long as you say that the surface cannot change in surface area.

The strings divide into distinct particles, however, since they are splitting in every clocktick, it is somewhat more akin to tracing, the spacetime particles that cause the activity are the new ones in every instance.

When i first conceived this idea it occurred to me that I needed to explain how they transfer force to each other, and I came up with an image of gears, composed of parallel threads. I posited that space was incompressible, however it needs to be highlighted that the formation of each new pair of spacetime particles is affected by the ones beside. As they twist, they share their rotational velocity with each other. Thus if two spacetime particles form next to each other with paralles spin axes, they do not affect each other. If they form with opposed spins, they tend to roll around each other. When they form with angle differences they both adopt partial spin velocity to each other, which is how the aforementioned non-locality is transmitted, because the opposed angle spins divide between newly formed pairs and adjacent pairs, which means if one change happens in one place, it moves right through the whole universe as the next cycle clicks over.

Free Energy and Antigravity - A Different Approach

This theory totally permits the violation of the third law of thermodynamics. The reason being is that no extra substance is created or destroyed, but that it divides, becoming twice as numerous but half the size in every clocktick. Every clocktick all of the strings are doing half as much, but there is twice as many. In essence, my position is that if one can create a device which contains a structure which resonates with the clocktick, one can then take this expansion energy and move it somewhere.

The electromagnetic model I have created suggests that electricity is simply a way in which one can transfer this energy from one place to another, via a mechanism quite similar to a fluid being pumped through pipes. Thus, conventional methods fail to produce more energy than they put in, in fact a lot of the energy is dissipated into the environment, in the form of heat and repulsion patterns, etc.

When i thought about this recently, i realised that there is no reason to maintain the electricity as primary intermediary concept. Think of the applications of energy. Transport, refrigeration, lighting, communications, heating, pumping (gas and liquid and solid), and the two primary actions in chemistry, binding and dissolving (from which all chemistry occurs).

Transport: we can eliminate the wheel, as it should be possible to create a passive device which channels gravity into a direction. Simply by matching the mass of an object to the approximate height at which one wants it to travel, to the passive generators, one can create impulse simply by changing the orientation of the gravity valves so that they push forwards. This could be entirely mechanical. I envision a car with stabilising repulsors on each corner oriented vertically, and the vehicle can be controlled with a joystic like device attached to the chassis with a stronger repulsor that one pushes forwards to go forwards and back to go back. A second one would be needed to permit changing the angular orientation of the device and control spin. One spins between forward and back, the other spins left to right. There would be little need of the left right if one did not mind having a constant lateral inertia, but I imagine that this would be quite disturbing unless one were to somehow disable inertia. As the angle reaches firther backwards, the up force would reduce, so a counter-propulsor which compensates could likewise be mechanically coupled. A gravity powered gyroscope system could rigidly maintain the device's horizontal aspect. This would be essential if the device were intended to fly too.

One of the things which would be greatly helpful would be a means to alter inertia. It would be extremely useful to be able to stop instantaneously without everything loose flying forwards. It may be possible to create a shielding around a device which seals up the spacetime particles against the ones outside the vehicle. This would probably consist of arrays of micro-gravity valves (repulsors) all pointing outwards, sealing the internal spacetime from the external. Such a shield would probably prevent damage from impact as well, and would definitely prevent people dying.

A large gravity valve with mounted on the ground with the flow pointed outwards would also stop objects from striking from that direction. Inertia is simply caused by the relative stasis of spacetime pushing against the object, and this is affected by all sorts of other things. A hermetic gravity seal/shield such as what i have described would cause the internal spacetime to retain staticity relative to the impulse delivered by the driver's controls. The device thusly shielded would also, if the amount of gravitational flux were matched to the mechanical strength of the vehicle, would be unbreakable because any impact would be countered by the equivalent amount of force required to damage it. Thus if it hit the ground it would bounce with equal force as it struck the ground.

Refrigeration: Quite simply, if one takes a gas, compresses it, the heat contained within it is forced to the edges and transfered outwards, as heat causes increased disharmony in a substance, forcing it to compress drives the heat out as disharmony caused the expansion in the first place. Thus using a gravity valve, one could cause a fluid inside a tube to compress, that is attached to a heatsink, and the outer side where the newly compressed gas goes is the cooling chamber. There would need to be a small aperture below the gravity valve to cause the pressure differential.

Pumping: Simply placing a fluid flow in the path of a gravity flux valve would cause the material to flow. Flow rate could be controlled via an adjustable tap.

Heating: Reverse the refrigeration.

Communications: A means of modulating a gravity emission with a waveform would permit instantaneous communication. Modulation with a carrier wave would permit distinguishing signals, and the carrier would be removed by the receiver in order to decode the signal. This method of communication would work from any two locations in the universe.

Chemistry: As mentioned above in heating and cooling, simply compressing or decompressing a substance changes its temperature, compressed substances emit heat, decompressed substances absorb it. A gravity valve would permit use as a mixer, for doing centrifuging without a centrifuge (simply place material desired to be de-particulated over a gravity valve). As for more sophisticated operations, establishing the spins of each element, and the frequency resonances of a molecule, one could cause them to re-arrange simply by irradiating them with any radiation containing the correct mixtures of frequencies that match the desired product. Disharmony between the precursor and the frequencies of the desired product would cause spontaneous re-arrangement to achieve harmony.

And of course the applications of this theory would be literally limitless. I used to worry about this technology and these ideas being co-opted by evil people, but I need not worry, because a: they probably will not see it on their 'threats and advantages' radar partly because I am a nobody and these ideas sound crazy, and b: because it will be distributed first amongst people who I regard as non-evil. Once someone builds the omnidirectional inertia shield device, all bets are off. Not to mention the possibilites for a transport device able to withstand ridiculous speeds and unable to be broken by any impact.